RNA homeostasis is regulated by a multitude of cellular pathways. Although the addition of untemplated adenine residues to the 3' end of mRNAs has long been known to affect RNA stability, newly developed techniques for 3'-end sequencing of RNAs have revealed various unexpected RNA modifications. Among these, uridylation is most recognized for its role in mRNA decay but is also a key regulator of numerous RNA species, including miRNAs and tRNAs, with dual roles in both stability and maturation of miRNAs. Additionally, low levels of untemplated guanidine and cytidine residues have been observed as parts of more complex tailing patterns.
Keywords: RNA degradation; mRNA; microRNA; mixed tails; nucleotide addition; tRNA.
© 2020 Mallory I. Frederick and Ilka U. Heinemann, published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.