Incidence of Cardiac Manifestations in Children with Dengue Fever: A Cross-sectional Study

Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2021 Apr 29;12(2):e0014. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10436.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of our study was to explore the incidence of cardiac involvement in children with dengue infection admitted in a tertiary care hospital and to evaluate the features of cardiac involvement with the severity of dengue fever.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2014 to August 2016. A total of 130 patients with confirmed dengue NS1 antigen or IgM antibody positivity between the ages of 1 month and 18 years were evaluated. On the third day of admission, blood samples for cardiac markers were collected, and electrocardiograms (ECG) and echocardiograms were performed for each patient.

Results: Of the 130 dengue patients in the study, 60 (46.2%) were males and 70 (53.8%) were females (male to female ratio, 1:1.16). Cardiac involvement was present in 60 (46.2%) children and was more prominent in children with severe dengue (72.7%), followed by dengue with warning symptoms (53.8%) and dengue fever (28.6%). There was no significant correlation between cardiac involvement and primary/secondary dengue. Both ECG and echocardiography changes were significantly correlated with dengue severity, as opposed to cardiac markers.

Conclusions: Cardiac involvement was present in children with dengue. Evaluation with ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac markers such as creatine phosphokinase-myocardial band (CPK-MB) are required for the management of cardiac complications in children with dengue. Our study showed an association between cardiac involvement and the severity of dengue. Further studies should be framed, and follow-up of dengue patients with cardiac involvement is necessary for therapeutic management.