White Matter Alteration Following SWAT Explosive Breaching Training and the Moderating Effect of a Neck Collar Device: A DTI and NODDI Study

Mil Med. 2021 May 3;usab168. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usab168. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Introduction: Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) personnel who practice breaching with blast exposure are at risk for blast-related head trauma. We aimed to investigate the impact of low-level blast exposure on underlying white matter (WM) microstructure based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation and density imaging (NODDI) in SWAT personnel before and after breacher training. Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced MRI technique sensitive to underlying WM alterations. NODDI is a novel MRI technique emerged recently that acquires diffusion weighted data from multiple shells modeling for different compartments in the microstructural environment in the brain. We also aimed to evaluate the effect of a jugular vein compression collar device in mitigating the alteration of the diffusion properties in the WM as well as its role as a moderator on the association between the diffusion property changes and the blast exposure.

Materials and methods: Twenty-one SWAT personnel (10 non-collar and 11 collar) completed the breacher training and underwent MRI at both baseline and after blast exposure. Diffusion weighted data were acquired with two shells (b = 1,000, 2,000 s/mm2) on 3T Phillips scanners. Diffusion tensor imaging metrices, including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial, and radial diffusivity, and NODDI metrics, including neurite density index (NDI), isotropic volume fraction (fiso), and orientation dispersion index, were calculated. Tract-based spatial statistics was used in the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Post hoc analyses were performed for the quantification of the pre- to post-blast exposure diffusion percentage change in the WM regions with significant group difference and for the assessment of the interaction of the relationship between blast exposure and diffusion alteration.

Results: The non-collar group exhibited significant pre- to post-blast increase in NDI (corrected P < .05) in the WM involving the right internal capsule, the right posterior corona radiation, the right posterior thalamic radiation, and the right sagittal stratum. A subset of these regions showed significantly greater alteration in NDI and fiso in the non-collar group when compared with those in the collar group (corrected P < .05). In addition, collar wearing exhibited a significant moderating effect for the alteration of fiso for its association with average peak pulse pressure.

Conclusions: Our data provided initial evidence of the impact of blast exposure on WM diffusion alteration based on both DTI and NODDI. The mitigating effect of WM diffusivity changes and the moderating effect of collar wearing suggest that the device may serve as a promising solution to protect WM against blast exposure.