Objective: The aim of the current study was to classify and analyze trends in lumbar disc degeneration across age, sex, and disc level using weightbearing kinematic MRI.
Materials and methods: Between January 2019 and July 2019, 1198 cases were retrospectively analyzed with kinematic MRI. Patients were divided into 5 groups based on age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60+) and evaluated using the Pfirrmann classification to assess for disc degeneration at 5 vertebral levels: L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1. Trends in degeneration were analyzed with regression and time series.
Results: The L5/S1 vertebral disc had the highest prevalence of severe degeneration across all age groups. The most common multi-level degeneration combinations were L4/5 and L5/S1 for two levels and L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 for three levels. All vertebral levels showed significant difference in mean Pfirrmann grade among the age groups (p < 0.001 at all levels). Statistically significant differences in mean Pfirmmann grade among males and females were found only in ages 20-29 and 30-39, in which males showed more degeneration.
Conclusion: Our findings using kinematic MRI demonstrate that degeneration increases with age and is most severe in the L5/S1 disc. In multi-level degeneration the most prevalent combinations are those that are contiguous and include L5/S1. Young males were more likely to have degeneration than young females, but there was no significant difference from the fifth decade of life on.
Keywords: Degeneration; Lumbar spine; Pfirmmann grade; Trends; kMRI.
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