Endometriosis: New Perspective for the Diagnosis of Certain Cytokines in Women and Adolescent Girls, as Well as the Progression of Disease Outgrowth: A Systematic Review

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr 29;18(9):4726. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18094726.


Endometriosis is a common chronic gynecological disorder that undoubtedly impacts on quality of life, and is one of the more complex and mysterious illnesses of our century, which is associated with the improper growth of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. This pathologically implanted tissue can be found most frequently in the minor pelvis, but also in the peritoneal cavity, and can affect many organs, leading to chronic pelvic pain syndrome, infertility, and dysmenorrhea. Endometrial tissue is a particularly dynamic tissue that has a direct impact on the progression of the disease, with altered immunity, as well as cytokine storms within the metaplastic endometriotic site, as possible key factors. Currently, diagnosis of this mysterious chronic illness relies on performing a laparoscopic procedure with tissue sampling. One of the most troublesome outcomes of this unintended progression is that we lack any specific, sensitive, non-invasive diagnostic tools. Currently, the vast majority of regime stewardship options rely on anti-contraceptive drugs, or other remedies that suppress the release of estrogen through the gonads-although in most clinical trials, endometriosis is a chronic progressive disorder that depends mostly on the high concentration of estrogen. Moreover, many specific trials have demonstrated that the eutopic endometrial cells in individuals with endometriosis remain much more resistant to the immunological annihilation process caused by certain elements of the immune system. Nevertheless, eutopic endometrial cells have the potential to similarly escalate the expression of aromatase receptors on the surface of the pathological cells, which in the final cascade cause an increase in the concentration of estrogen, as well as other inflammatory proteins that contribute to pathological outgrowth. Data reveal occurrence among first-degree relatives, suggesting that the specific cascade could be related to inherited as well as epigenetic (acquired) mechanisms. In women with the disease, confirmed by laparoscopic procedures, diagnosis of endometriosis can be established also via detection by gene polymorphism in the genes which are responsible for responsible for the detoxification phase of estrogen receptors and other immunomodulator components. A recent publication aims to reveal a new prospect for the non-invasive diagnosis, detection, and estimation of certain biomarkers for much more specific investigation of the disease's progression.

Keywords: adolescence; biomarkers; circulation; cytokines; detection; endometriosis; non-invasive; progression.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cytokines
  • Endometriosis* / diagnosis
  • Endometrium
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pelvic Pain
  • Quality of Life


  • Cytokines