Research efforts have been focused on developing multivalent ion batteries because they hold great promise and could be a major advancement in energy storage, since two or three times more charge per ion can be transferred as compared with lithium. However, their application is limited because of the lack of suitable cathode materials to reversibly intercalate multivalent ions. From that perspective, vanadium pentoxide is a promising cathode material because of its low toxicity, ease of synthesis, and layered structure, which provides huge possibilities for the development of energy storage devices. In this mini review, the general strategies required for the improvement of reversibility, capacity value, and stability of the cathodes is presented. The role of nanostructural morphologies, structure, and composites on the performance of vanadium pentoxide in the last five years is addressed. Finally, perspectives on future directions of the cathodes are proposed.
Keywords: aluminum-ion; aqueous batteries; cathode; magnesium-ion; vanadium pentoxide; zinc-ion.