The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the spinal appearance questionnaire for congenital scoliosis patients over 10 years old

Spine Deform. 2021 Nov;9(6):1625-1632. doi: 10.1007/s43390-021-00356-w. Epub 2021 May 4.


Purpose: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the Turkish version of the SAQ (Tr-SAQ) in congenital scoliosis patients.

Methods: Applied to 52 patients with congenital scoliosis (38 female), the Tr-SAQ was applied to the same patients for the second time with an average interval of 14.9 ± 0.9 days. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. SRS-22 was used to test the convergent validity of Tr-SAQ. Internal consistency analysis and test-retest reliability were evaluated to show the reliability of Tr-SAQ.

Results: A two-factor structure with eigenvalues greater than one, namely "6.1" and "2.6" belonging to the Tr- SAQ, was obtained. The total variance of the factors is 62.1%. The factor load of each item in the first factor 'Appearance' domain varies between 0.7 and 0.8. The second factor 'Expectations' consists of four items. The factor load of each item varies between 0.7 and 0.8. A significant negative correlation was found between the Tr-SAQ appearance score and the self-image/appearance score of SRS-22 (r = - 0.5; p < 0.001). Cronbach alpha for Tr-SAQ was found to be 0.9. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated for test-retest reliability was 0.991 CONCLUSION: Previous validity and reliability studies of SAQ have been performed in idiopathic scoliosis patients. This is the first study containing patients diagnosed with congenital scoliosis. In this piece of work, the 2-factor structure of the Tr-SAQ consisting of 14 items was found to be valid and reliable in patients over 10 years of age with a diagnosis of congenital scoliosis.

Level of evidence: Level I.

Keywords: Congenital scoliosis; Cross-cultural adaptation; Spinal appearance questionnaire; Validation.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Scoliosis* / diagnosis
  • Spine
  • Surveys and Questionnaires