Background: Late-onset retinal degeneration (L-ORD) is a rare autosomal dominant retinal dystrophy related to C1QTNF5 gene variants.Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients (21-81 years) with L-ORD due to c.562C>A p.(Pro188Thr) with a mean follow-up time of 8 years (range 1-37 years) underwent an extensive ophthalmic work-up.Results: Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and visual fields were maintained up to 50 to 55 years (n = 8), with a gradual decline, but conservation of functional central vision between 55 to 65 years (n = 15), followed by a steep decrease in overall visual function beyond 65 years (n = 9). Classic anterior segment findings in L-ORD of abnormally long, anteriorly inserted lens zonules were absent in most patients (n = 24/26). In contrast, findings of iris transillumination and sphincter pupillae atrophy with poor dilation were novel. Patients presented with three completely different initial fundus phenotypes: adjoining pavingstone-like atrophic patches (type 1) (n = 6/20); tiny yellow-white subretinal dots (type 2) (n = 8/20); or larger yellow, thick, round sub-RPE drusenoid deposits (type 3) (n = 4/20). Two patients had a mixed phenotype. Although different in presentation phenotype, patients eventually all progressed to a common panretinal atrophy with diffuse intraretinal pigment migration beyond the age of 65. Progression pace, and thus visual prognosis, differed depending on presentation phenotype. Specifically, type 2 appears to have a more benign course.Conclusions: Phenotypic analysis showed three distinct presenting phenotypes with a considerable intrafamilial variability both in age of onset of clinical signs and in disease progression, with a fair visual potential (>20/40) until the seventh decade.Abbreviations: L-ORD: Late-onset retinal degeneration; C1QTNF5: complement 1Q tumor necrosis factor 5; OCT: Ocular coherence tomography; BCVA: Best-corrected visual acuity; RPE: Retinal pigment epithelium; ffERG: Full-field electroretinography; IRD: Inherited retinal dystrophy; CNV: Choroidal neovascularization; LAZ: Long anteriorly inserted zonules; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; IOP: Intraocular pressure; cSLO: confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy; BAF: Blue light autofluorescence; NIR-AF: Near-infrared autofluorescence; NIR-R: Near-infrared reflectance; RF: Red-free; SD-OCT: Spectral domain ocular coherence tomography; HRR: Hardy-Rand-Rittler pseudo-isochromatic plates; AS: anterior segment; UBM: ultrasound biomicroscopy; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphism; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor; IZ: Interdigitation zone; EZ: Ellipsoid zone; ELM: External limiting membrane; LP: Light perception; AMD: Age-related macular degeneration; SFD: Sorsby fundus dystrophy.
Keywords: C1QTNF5; L-ORD; LAZ; Late-onset retinal degeneration; long aanteriorly insertedlens zonules.