Granuloma annulare - is it a paraneoplastic condition for malignant lymphoma?

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2021 Jun;19(6):803-812. doi: 10.1111/ddg.14401. Epub 2021 May 5.


In recent years, an association between granuloma annulare and the occurrence of malignant cutaneous lymphomas in the sense of a facultative paraneoplasia has been observed several times. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the currently available literature on granuloma annulare as well as an analysis of its association with cutaneous lymphomas. Using the example of two patients with granuloma annulare and associated cutaneous lymphomas, we would like to sensitize clinically active dermatologists and dermatopathologists to the possible association between these two diseases. Characteristic features and clinicopathological signs are discussed, which should raise suspicion of an associated malignant lymphoma. It is recommended to rule out an underlying cutaneous and/or extracutaneous lymphoma in unusual clinical constellations (for instance distribution pattern, subjective complaints, age at first manifestation, lack of response to conventional therapy), especially in the absence of other known clinical triggers of granuloma annulare such as insect bites, trauma or varicella-zoster infections, among others. However, in individual cases the criteria mentioned here justify lymphoma screening.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Granuloma Annulare* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma* / diagnosis
  • Skin