Estimating Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial Participant Posttrial Survival Using Pooled Epidemiologic Cohort Data

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 May 18;10(10):e020361. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.020361. Epub 2021 May 6.


Background Intensive systolic blood pressure treatment (<120 mm Hg) in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) improved survival compared with standard treatment (<140 mm Hg) over a median follow-up of 3.3 years. We projected life expectancy after observed follow-up in SPRINT using SPRINT-eligible participants in the NHLBI-PCS (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Pooled Cohorts Study). Methods and Results We used propensity scores to weight SPRINT-eligible NHLBI-PCS participants to resemble SPRINT participants. In SPRINT participants, we estimated in-trial survival (<4 years) using a time-based flexible parametric survival model. In SPRINT-eligible NHLBI-PCS participants, we estimated posttrial survival (≥4 years) using an age-based flexible parametric survival model and applied the formula to SPRINT participants to predict posttrial survival. We projected overall life expectancy for each SPRINT participant and compared it to parametric regression (eg, Gompertz) projections based on SPRINT data alone. We included 8584 SPRINT and 10 593 SPRINT-eligible NHLBI-PCS participants. After propensity weighting, mean (SD) age was 67.9 (9.4) and 68.2 (8.8) years, and 35.5% and 37.6% were women in SPRINT and NHLBI-PCS, respectively. Using the NHLBI-PCS-based method, projected mean life expectancy from randomization was 21.0 (7.4) years with intensive and 19.1 (7.2) years with standard treatment. Using the Gompertz regression, life expectancy was 11.2 (2.3) years with intensive and 10.5 (2.2) years with standard treatment. Conclusions Combining SPRINT and NHLBI-PCS observed data likely offers a more realistic estimate of life expectancy than parametrically extrapolating SPRINT data alone. These results offer insight into the potential long-term effectiveness of intensive SBP goals.

Trial registration: NCT01206062.

Keywords: hypertension; life expectancy; survival.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Forecasting*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / mortality
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Propensity Score
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate / trends
  • Systole
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Antihypertensive Agents

Associated data


Grant support