Bulbourethral glands are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system, the leading function of which is associated with ejaculation and includes both the neutralization of the acidic urine residues and environment of the female vagina, and friction reduction during the sexual intercourse. These glands play the role of immune barrier for urogenital infections, and also synthesize important autocrine and paracrine factors for the male urogenital system development. Glands pathologies usually have a subclinical course, however they can also lead to the functional disorders of the human urogenital system. The list of the most common diseases include cuperitis and syringocele. Usually their duration is asymptomatic and they are nearly impossible to diagnose; as a consequence, it is quite difficult to evaluate the real incidence of morbidity and importance of the bulbourethral gland pathology. In recent years, the vast majority of the bulbourethral glands researches are dedicated to the features of X-ray diagnostics and pathology detection, as well as to the description of rare clinical cases. Authors have analyzed the various available scientific data in order to review of morphological, physiological and clinical aspects of the Cowpers glands.
Keywords: bulbourethral gland; glands; male reproductive system; urogenital pathology.