The process dynamics for the vacuum deposition of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite was analyzed by in situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. MAPbI3 was fabricated by alternatingly supplying PbI2 and methylammonium iodide via a laser deposition system installed at the synchrotron beamline BL46XU at SPring-8, and in situ crystallization analysis was conducted. Microscopic insights into the crystallization were obtained, including observation of Laue oscillation during the PbI2 growth and octahedral unit (PbI6) rotation during the transformation into perovskite. On the basis of this analysis, conditions that favor the construction of atomically flat MAPbI3 perovskite films were deduced.
Keywords: crystal growth; in situ GIWAXS; organolead halide perovskite; vacuum deposition.