Association of depression, anxiety and menopausal-related symptoms with demographic, anthropometric and body composition indices in healthy postmenopausal women

BMC Womens Health. 2021 May 7;21(1):192. doi: 10.1186/s12905-021-01338-w.


Background: The termination of the menstrual cycle is correlated with a number of physiological alterations and symptoms that can negatively impact emotion and mood. We aimed to investigate the association of anxiety, depression, and menopausal related symptoms with demographic, anthropometric, and body composition indices in healthy postmenopausal women.

Methods: A total of 320 menopausal women were selected randomly from referrals of health centers between January and June 2018 in Tabriz/Iran. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was applied to evaluate body fat mass (BFM), soft lean mass (SLM), and lean body mass (LBM) of participants. The modified Kupperman index, Beck's depression inventory-II, and Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory were applied to measure the severity of menopausal-related symptoms, the frequency, and severity of the symptoms of depression and state (SA) and trait anxiety (TA), respectively.

Results: Finally, 245 postmenopausal women with age of 55.33 ± 4.48 years and body mass index (BMI) of 27.96 ± 3.22 kg/m2 were studied. Women with the age of 55 years and older (OR 3.928, 95% CI 1.504-10.256) and also women with mild physical activity (OR 10.104, 95% CI 3.785-26.976) had a greater possibility of having mild and moderate depression in comparison with women less than 50 years old and women with moderate and severe physical activity. Moderate and severe physical activity was correlated with a lower possibility of having medium upward, relatively severe and severe TA in comparison with participants with mild physical activity in these women (OR 0.372, 95% CI 0.151-0.917). Women with higher BMI and BFM had and more severe menopause-related symptoms (r = 0.143, p = 0.025 and r = 0.139, p = 0.030, respectively) and more severe TA symptoms (r = 0.198, p = 0.018 and r = 0.151, p = 0.021, respectively). Women with lower LBM (r = - 0.139, p = 0.031) and lower SLM (r = - 0.128, p = 0.047) had more severe depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with higher age and lower physical activity had a greater possibility of having mild and moderate depression. Lower physical activity was also correlated with a greater possibility of having medium upward to severe TA symptoms. Postmenopausal women with higher BMI and BFM had more severe menopause-related and TA symptoms. Women with lower LBM and SLM had more severe depressive symptoms.

Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Menopause.

Publication types

  • Clinical Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anxiety / epidemiology
  • Body Composition
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Menopause
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause*