Maturation of caffeine metabolic pathways in infancy

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 Aug;44(2):145-51. doi: 10.1038/clpt.1988.129.

Abstract

The maturation of the different pathways of caffeine metabolism was studied during infancy. The group of children (n = 14) consisted of four premature newborn infants and 10 older infants who received caffeine citrate solution. Caffeine and 11 of its metabolites were measured by HPLC. Total demethylation and N3- and N7-demethylation increase exponentially with postnatal age; the plateau is reached by 120 days and accounts for 58.6%, 90.5%, and 79.3%, respectively. N1-demethylation shows no variation with postnatal age. It is suggested that N3-demethylation is more important in young infants than in adults and that maturation of N1-demethylation occurs later than 19 months of age. 8-Hydroxylation is mature as early as 1 month of age and may be higher in infants than in adults. Acetylation is not mature before at least 1 year of age. Differences in maturation rate of acetylation may be related in part to genetic acetylator status.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Apnea / drug therapy
  • Apnea / prevention & control
  • Caffeine / administration & dosage
  • Caffeine / metabolism*
  • Caffeine / urine
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Citrates / administration & dosage
  • Citrates / metabolism
  • Drug Combinations / administration & dosage
  • Drug Combinations / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxylation
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Pierre Robin Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Time Factors
  • Uracil / analogs & derivatives
  • Uracil / urine
  • Xanthines / urine

Substances

  • Citrates
  • Drug Combinations
  • Xanthines
  • methylxanthine
  • Caffeine
  • Uracil
  • 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil
  • caffeine citrate