Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is highly prevalent and is associated with relevant morbidity and mortality. However, an evidence-based treatment is still absent. The heterogeneous definitions, differences in aetiology/pathophysiology, and diagnostic challenges of HFpEF made it difficult to define its epidemiological landmarks so far. Several large registries and observational studies have recently disclosed an increasing incidence/prevalence, as well as its prognostic significance. An accurate definition of HFpEF epidemiological boundaries and phenotypes is mandatory to develop novel effective and rational therapeutic approaches.
Keywords: Clinical presentation; Epidemiology; HFpEF; Heart failure; Pathophysiology.
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