Ultra-high resolution mapping of reverse typical atrial flutter: electrophysiological properties of a right atrial posterior wall and interatrial septum activation pattern

J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2022 Mar;63(2):333-339. doi: 10.1007/s10840-021-01003-0. Epub 2021 May 8.


Purpose: We aimed to elucidate the right atrial posterior wall (RAPW) and interatrial septum (IAS) conduction pattern during reverse typical atrial flutter (clockwise AFL: CW-AFL).

Methods: This study included 30 patients who underwent catheter ablation of CW-AFL (n = 11) and counter-clockwise AFL (CCW-AFL; n = 19) using an ultra-high resolution mapping system. RAPW transverse conduction block was evaluated by the conduction pattern on propagation maps and double potentials separated by an isoelectric line. The degree of blockade was evaluated by the %blockade, which was calculated by the length of the blocked area divided by the RAPW length. IAS activation patterns were also investigated dependent on the propagation map.

Results: The average %blockade of the RAPW was significantly smaller in patients with CW-AFL than those with CCW-AFL (25 [3-74]% vs. 67 [57-75]%, p < 0.05). CW-AFL patients exhibited 3 different RAPW conduction patterns: (1) a complete blockade pattern (3 patients), (2) moderate (> 25% blockade) blockade pattern (2 patients), and (3) little (< 25% blockade) blockade pattern (6 patients). In contrast, the little blockade pattern was not observed in CCW-AFL patients. Of 11 CW-AFL patients, 4, including all patients with an RAPW complete blockade pattern, had an IAS activation from the wavefront from the anterior tricuspid annulus (TA), and 6 had an IAS activation from the wavefronts from both the anterior TA and RAPW. One patient had IAS activation dominantly from the wavefront from the RAPW.

Conclusions: RAPW transverse conduction blockade during CW-AFL was less frequent than during CCW-AFL, which possibly caused various IAS activation patterns.

Keywords: Reverse typical atrial flutter; Typical atrial flutter; Ultra-high resolution mapping.

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / surgery
  • Atrial Flutter* / diagnostic imaging
  • Atrial Flutter* / etiology
  • Atrial Flutter* / surgery
  • Catheter Ablation* / adverse effects
  • Heart Atria / surgery
  • Heart Block
  • Humans