Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: Influence of heterotaxy and venous obstruction on outcomes

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 Apr 2;S0022-5223(21)00539-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.03.058. Online ahead of print.


Background: Previous studies have demonstrated increased early mortality and pulmonary vein reintervention for patients with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) and heterotaxy syndrome (HTX+) compared with patients with TAPVC without heterotaxy syndrome (HTX-). We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal risk of pulmonary vein reintervention and mortality in HTX + patients.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify longitudinal interventions in patients with TAPVC seen at a single center from 1995 to 2019. The mean cumulative interventions were described for all patients using the Nelson-Aalen estimator. Survival with TAPVC was described using Kaplan-Meier estimates.

Results: A total of 336 patients were identified with TAPVC, of whom 118 (35%) had heterotaxy syndrome. Functional single ventricles were identified in 106 of these 118 HTX + patients (90%) and in 14 of 218 HTX- patients (6%) (P < .001). Obstructed TAPVC (OBS+) was present in 49 of 118 HTX + patients (42%) and in 87 of 218 HTX- patients (40%) (P = .89). The median duration of follow-up was 6.5 years. Five-year survival was 69% for HTX+/OBS + patients, 72% for HTX+/OBS- patients, 86% for HTX-/OBS + patients, and 95% for HTX-/OBS- patients (P < .0001, log-rank test). The mean number of pulmonary vein interventions at the median follow-up time was greater in the HTX+/OBS + patients compared with HTX+/OBS- patients (mean, 2.0 vs 1.1; P = .030), HTX-/OBS + patients (mean, 1.3; P = .033), and HTX-/OBS- patients (mean, 1.3; P = .029).

Conclusions: Among the 4 cohorts, HTX+ was associated with a higher rate of mortality, and HTX+/OBS+ was associated with a greater number of pulmonary vein interventions. This may be due in part to the high prevalence of single ventricle physiology in the HTX + cohort.

Keywords: congenital; heterotaxy; total anomalous pulmonary venous connections.