Change in CAIDE Dementia Risk Score and Neuroimaging Biomarkers During a 2-Year Multidomain Lifestyle Randomized Controlled Trial: Results of a Post-Hoc Subgroup Analysis

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2021 Jul 13;76(8):1407-1414. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glab130.


The CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Risk Score is a validated tool estimating dementia risk. It was previously associated with imaging biomarkers. However, associations between dementia risk scores (including CAIDE) and dementia-related biomarkers have not been studied in the context of an intervention. This study investigated associations between change in CAIDE score and change in neuroimaging biomarkers (brain magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography [PiB-PET] measures) during the 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) (post-hoc analyses). FINGER targeted at-risk older adults, aged 60-77 years, from the general population. Participants were randomized to either multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk management) or control group (general health advice). Neuroimaging (MRI and PiB-PET) data from baseline and 2-year visits were used. A toal of 112 participants had repeated brain MRI measures (hippocampal, total gray matter, and white matter lesion volumes, and Alzheimer's disease signature cortical thickness). Repeated PiB-PET scans were available for 39 participants. Reduction in CAIDE score (indicating lower dementia risk) during the intervention was associated with less decline in hippocampus volume in the intervention group, but not the control group (Randomization group × CAIDE change interaction β coefficient = -0.40, p = .02). Associations for other neuroimaging measures were not significant. The intervention may have benefits on hippocampal volume in individuals who succeed in improving their overall risk level as indicated by a reduction in CAIDE score. This exploratory finding requires further testing and validation in larger studies.

Keywords: Dementia; Hippocampus; Prevention; Risk reduction.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging* / physiology
  • Aging* / psychology
  • Brain Cortical Thickness*
  • Cognition / physiology
  • Correlation of Data
  • Dementia* / diagnosis
  • Dementia* / physiopathology
  • Dementia* / prevention & control
  • Dementia* / psychology
  • Female
  • Geriatric Assessment / methods
  • Health Behavior
  • Heart Disease Risk Factors
  • Hippocampus* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hippocampus* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Male
  • Neuroimaging / methods
  • Neuroimaging / statistics & numerical data
  • Organ Size
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*