Dosimetry investigation of a prototype of 169 Yb seed brachytherapy for use in circular stapler

Phys Eng Sci Med. 2021 Jun;44(2):525-534. doi: 10.1007/s13246-021-01004-3. Epub 2021 May 10.


This study aims to investigate dosimetry parameters for the new design of 169Yb seed in the form of a surgical staple for circular staplers commonly used in the abdominal incision and the esophageal and gastric surgery, which facilitates the precise placement. This seed includes a titanium tube with the inner diameter and outer diameter 0.68 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively, and length of 0.8 mm. Both sides of the tube are closed by titanium wires with the thickness of 0.65 mm by the laser. Natural ytterbium oxide is used after the thermal neutron activation; it is necessary for cooling time of 40 days. The dosimetry parameters were calculated based on the TG-43U1 using Monte Carlo MCNP5 code. The experimental dosimetry was performed by EBT3 radiochromic film to determine 2D dosimetry at near distance of the source and validate the MC code. The dose rate constant of MC calculation was obtained at 1.39cGyh-1U-1 ± 4% with the difference of 5% compared to another study. The dose distribution was symmetrical along the Z-axis and Y-axis (around the seed) and there was a uniform activity inside the tube. The distinction of dose rate was not noticeable at the 90 and 270 degrees on the Z-axis, which indicated a slight effect on staple legs in the matter of delivery dose. However, to understand dose distribution and introduce this source in a pre-clinical study, 3D dosimetry as well as further studying the heterogeneous function is required.

Keywords: 169Yb; Brachytherapy; Dosimetry; MC simulation; Radioactive stapler; Radiochromic film.

MeSH terms

  • Brachytherapy*
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Radiometry
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Titanium


  • Titanium