Most patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have exhausted their treatment options and are deemed palliative. CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has recently been introduced as a new option for these patients. Lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel) is an investigational CAR T-cell therapy that has shown promising activity in this setting. We used an unanchored matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) methodology to compare liso-cel, using individual patient-level data from the TRANSCEND NHL 001 (TRANSCEND; NCT02631044) trial, to salvage chemotherapy, using summary-level data from the SCHOLAR-1 study, for the treatment of patients with R/R LBCL. Standardized mean differences were used to evaluate imbalances between the TRANSCEND and SCHOLAR-1 studies. MAIC was conducted to determine the relative efficacy of liso-cel vs. salvage chemotherapy with regard to overall survival, complete response rate, and objective response rate. For all efficacy outcomes assessed, comparisons of clinical factors before MAIC showed that five of seven baseline characteristics were similar between the TRANSCEND and SCHOLAR-1 studies; however, age and R/R to last therapy status differed between studies, thus requiring matching and adjusting to ensure the validity of this analysis. The base case analyses demonstrated a significantly lower risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-0.6; p < 0.001) with significantly higher rates of complete response (odds ratio, 12.9; 95% CI 8.0-20.7) and objective response (odds ratio, 7.0; 95% CI 4.6-10.5) for patients treated with liso-cel than patients treated with salvage chemotherapy. MAIC comparisons demonstrated favorable efficacy for liso-cel compared with salvage chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with R/R LBCL.Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02631044.
Keywords: CAR T-cell therapy; Indirect treatment comparison; Large B-cell lymphoma; Lisocabtagene maraleucel; MAIC; Outcomes.