Pertussis Immunization During Pregnancy: Assessment of the Role of Maternal Antibodies on Immune Responses in Term and Preterm-Born Infants

Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jan 29;74(2):189-198. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab424.

Abstract

Background: Limited data exist on the impact of maternal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for preterm born infants. We report its effect at birth and on antibody-mediated immune responses to a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T vaccine in preterm compared with term infants.

Methods: Women delivering at term or prematurely were either vaccinated with a Tdap vaccine (Boostrix; GSK) during pregnancy or not vaccinated in the last 5 years. Cord and maternal blood were collected at delivery. Infants were vaccinated with DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T vaccine (Hexyon; Sanofi Pasteur) and blood collected before and 1 month after primary (8-12-16 weeks) and before and 1 month after booster vaccination (13 or 15 months for preterm and term, respectively). Immunoglobulin G antibodies against all antigens included in DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T vaccine were measured (NCT02511327).

Results: Cord blood geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) in preterm infants from Tdap-vaccinated women were significantly higher than in term and preterm infants from unvaccinated women. A longer time interval between maternal vaccination and delivery resulted in higher cord blood GMCs in preterm infants. Equal GMCs in term and preterm infants from Tdap-vaccinated women were observed after primary vaccination. After boosting, significantly lower GMCs were seen for pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and tetanus toxoid in preterm compared with term infants from Tdap-vaccinated women, yet still comparable to GMCs in both term and preterm infants from unvaccinated women.

Conclusions: Preterm infants profit from maternal Tdap vaccination. Prematurity did not influence primary immune responses in the presence of maternal antibodies but was associated with a lower booster immune response.

Keywords: Tdap; antibody-mediated immune responses; prematurity; vaccination in pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Immunization, Secondary
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Pregnancy
  • Vaccination
  • Whooping Cough* / prevention & control

Substances

  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02511327