The furosemide stress test: current use and future potential

Ren Fail. 2021 Dec;43(1):830-839. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2021.1906701.


Loop diuretics are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and are commonly employed in the management of complications associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), namely volume overload and electrolyte management. The use of loop diuretics in critically ill patients with AKI is paramount to preventing or treating pulmonary edema. The naturetic response to a loop diuretic is based on its unique renal pharmacology. Our review article summarizes the pharmacology of furosemide in the intact nephron and discusses how this response might be altered by the presence of AKI. We discuss the increasing body of literature on the latest clinical utility of furosemide namely, it's challenge test, known as the furosemide stress test which has highlighted a new and novel role for furosemide over the past number of years. This test assists with the identification of AKI subjects at higher risk of AKI progression and the need for renal replacement therapy. The stress test can also predict cessation of continuous renal replacement therapy in patients with established AKI. On the basis of the evidence presented in this review, we propose future potential studies of furosemide in AKI.

Keywords: Furosemide; acute kidney injury; renal replacement therapy; risk assessment; stress test.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / diagnosis*
  • Critical Illness
  • Diuretics
  • Electrolytes
  • Exercise Test
  • Furosemide*
  • Humans
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Diuretics
  • Electrolytes
  • Furosemide