Fetal Growth and Stillbirth

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;48(2):297-310. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2021.03.001.


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common clinical manifestation of placental insufficiency. As such, FGR is a risk factor for stillbirth. This association has been demonstrated in numerous studies but is prone to overestimation because of the possibility of prolonged in utero retention before the recognition of the fetal death. Stillbirth risk reduction by optimizing maternal medical conditions and exposures and appropriate antenatal testing and delivery timing are essential to pregnancies affected by FGR. It is important to evaluate stillbirths with FGR with fetal autopsy, placental pathology, genetic testing, and assessment of antiphospholipid antibodies and fetal-maternal hemorrhage.

Keywords: Fetal death; Fetal growth restriction; Stillbirth.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autopsy / methods
  • Female
  • Fetal Death
  • Fetal Development*
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / epidemiology*
  • Fetus
  • Genetic Testing / methods
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Placenta / pathology
  • Placental Insufficiency / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Care / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Stillbirth / epidemiology*