Background: Utilizating the plant microbiome to enhance pathogen resistance in crop production is an emerging alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. However, the diversity and structure of the microbiota, and the assembly mechanisms of root-associated microbial communities of plants are still poorly understood.
Results: We invstigated the microbiota of the root endosphere and rhizosphere soils of the rice cultivar Nipponbare (NPB) and its Piz-t-transgenic line (NPB-Piz-t) when infected with the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) isolate KJ201, using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing. The rhizosphere soils showed higher bacterial and fungal richness and diversity than the endosphere except for fungal richness in the rhizosphere soils of the mock treatment. Bacteria richness and diversity increased in the endospheric communities of NPB and Piz-t under inoculation with KJ201 (referred to as 'NPB-KJ201' and 'Piz-t-KJ201', respectively) compared with the corresponding mock treatments, with the NPB-KJ201 showing the highest diversity in the four bacterial endocompartments. In contrast, fungal richness and diversity decreased in the endospheric communities of NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201, relative to the corresponding mock treatments, with NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201 having the lowest richness and diversity, respectively, across the four fungal endocompartments. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the microbiota of Piz-t-KJ201 of root endophytes were mostly remarkablely distinct from that of NPB-KJ201. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that the phyla Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the key contributors to the bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. Furthermore, a comparative metabolic analysis showed that the contents of tryptophan metabolism and indole alkaloid biosynthesis were significantly lower in the Piz-t-KJ201 plants.
Conclusions: In this study, we compared the diversity, composition, and assembly of microbial communities associated with the rhizosphere soils and endosphere of Piz-t-KJ201 and NPB-KJ201. On the basis of the different compositions, diversities, and assemblies of the microbial communities among different compartments, we propose that the host genotype and inoculation pattern of M. oryzae played dominant roles in determining the microbial community assemblage. Further metabolomics analysis revealed that some metabolites may influence changes in bacterial communities. This study improves our understanding of the complex interactions between rice and M. oryzae, which could be useful in developing new strategies to improve rice resistance through the manipulation of soil microorganisms.
Keywords: Amplicon sequencing; Magnaporthe oryzae; Meta-analysis; Microbiota; Rice.