Update on pediatric testicular germ cell tumors

J Pediatr Surg. 2022 Apr;57(4):690-699. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Apr 15.


Background: Testicular germ cell tumors are uncommon tumors that are encountered by pediatric surgeons and urologists and require a knowledge of appropriate contemporary evaluation and surgical and medical management.

Method: A review of the recommended diagnostic evaluation and current surgical and medical management of children and adolescents with testicular germ cell tumors based upon recently completed clinical trials was performed and summarized in this article.

Results: In this summary of childhood and adolescent testicular germ cell tumors, we review the initial clinical evaluation, surgical and medical management, risk stratification, results from recent prospective cooperative group studies, and clinical outcomes. A summary of recently completed clinical trials by pediatric oncology cooperative groups is provided, and best surgical practices are discussed.

Conclusions: Testicular germ cell tumors in children are rare tumors. International collaborations, data-sharing, and enrollment of patients at all stages and risk classifications into active clinical trials will enhance our knowledge of these rare tumors and most importantly improve outcomes of patients with testicular germ cell tumors.

Level of evidence: This is a review article of previously published and referenced level 1 and 2 studies, but also includes expert opinion level 5, represented by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Cancer Committee.

Keywords: Orchiectomy; Pediatric; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; Testicular germ cell malignancy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Lymph Node Excision
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / pathology
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / therapy
  • Orchiectomy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / therapy

Supplementary concepts

  • Testicular Germ Cell Tumor