Prostate minimally invasive procedures: complications and normal vs. abnormal findings on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)

Abdom Radiol (NY). 2021 Sep;46(9):4388-4400. doi: 10.1007/s00261-021-03097-6. Epub 2021 May 11.


Minimally invasive alternatives to traditional prostate surgery are increasingly utilized to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and localized prostate cancer in select patients. Advantages of these treatments over prostatectomy include lower risk of complication, shorter length of hospital stay, and a more favorable safety profile. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has become a widely accepted imaging modality for evaluation of the prostate gland and provides both anatomical and functional information. As prostate mpMRI and minimally invasive prostate procedure volumes increase, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with normal post-procedure imaging findings and potential complications. This paper reviews the indications, procedural concepts, common post-procedure imaging findings, and potential complications of prostatic artery embolization, prostatic urethral lift, irreversible electroporation, photodynamic therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, focal cryotherapy, and focal laser ablation.

Keywords: Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Focal cryotherapy; Focal laser ablation; High-intensity focused ultrasound; Irreversible electroporation; Photodynamic therapy; Prostate cancer; Prostatic artery embolization; Prostatic urethral lift procedure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Embolization, Therapeutic*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / surgery
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / surgery