New isolate from Salvinia molesta with antioxidant and urease inhibitory activity

Drug Dev Res. 2021 Dec;82(8):1169-1181. doi: 10.1002/ddr.21831. Epub 2021 May 13.


Urease plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis pyelonephritis, urinary catheter encrustation, hepatic coma, hepatic encephalopathy, and peptic acid duodenal ulcers. Salvinia molesta was explored to identify new bioactive compounds with particular emphasis on urease inhibitors. The aqueous methanol extract was fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity. A series of column chromatography and later HPLC were performed on butanol extract. The structures of the resulting pure compounds were resolved using NMR (1D and 2D), infrared, and mass spectroscopy. The novel isolate was evaluated for antioxidant activity (using DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging, oxidative burst, and Fe+2 chelation assays), anti-glycation behavior, anticancer activity, carbonic anhydrase inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition, and urease inhibition. One new glucopyranose derivative 6'-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4'-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and four known glycosides were identified. Glycoside 1 demonstrated promising antioxidant potential with IC50 values of 48.2 ± 0.3, 60.3 ± 0.6, and 42.1 ± 1.8 μM against DPPH, superoxide radical, and oxidative burst, respectively. Its IC50 in the Jack bean urease inhibition assay was 99.1 ± 0.8 μM. The mechanism-based kinetic studies presented that compound 1 is a mixed-type inhibitor of urease with a Ki value of 91.8 ± 0.1 μM. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations exploring the binding mode of compound 1 with urease provided quantitative agreement between estimated binding free energies and the experimental results. The studies corroborate the use of compound 1 as a lead for QSAR studies as an antioxidant and urease inhibitor. Moreover, it needs to be further evaluated through the animal model, that is, in vivo or tissue culture-based ex-vivo studies, to establish their therapeutic potential against oxidative stress phosphodiesterase-II and urease-induced pathologies.

Keywords: Salvinia molesta; antioxidant; oxidative burst; phosphodiesterase-I inhibition; urease inhibition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Luminescent Measurements
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / analysis*
  • Tracheophyta / chemistry*
  • Urease / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Urease / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
  • Plant Extracts
  • Urease