Due to the increasing demand for eco-friendly, cost-effective and safe technologies, biosynthetic metal nanoparticles have attracted worldwide attention. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were extracellularly biosynthesized using the culture supernatants of Aspergillus sydowii. During synthesis, color change was preliminarily judge of the generation of AgNPs, and the UV absorption peak at 420 nm further confirms the production of AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were also used to identify the AgNPs. The results shows that AgNPs has crystalline cubic feature and is a polydisperse spherical particle with size between 1 and 24 nm. Three main synthesis factors (temperature, pH and substrate concentration) were optimized, the best synthesis conditions were as follows 50 °C, 8.0 and 1.5 mM. In the biological application of AgNPs, it shows effective antifungal activity against many clinical pathogenic fungi and antiproliferative activity to HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells in vitro. Our research finds a new path to biosynthesis of AgNPs in an eco-friendly manner, and bring opportunity for biomedical applications in clinic.