Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative motor disorder which is largely sporadic; however, some familial forms have been identified. Genetic PD can be inherited by autosomal, dominant or recessive mutations. While the dominant mutations mirror the prototype of PD with adult-onset and L-dopa-responsive cases, autosomal recessive PD (ARPD) exhibit atypical phenotypes with additional clinical manifestations. Young-onset PD is also very common with mutations in recessive gene loci. The main genes associated with ARPD are Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, ATP13A2, FBXO7 and PLA2G6. Calcium dyshomeostasis is a mainstay in all types of PD, be it genetic or sporadic. Intriguingly, calcium imbalances manifesting as altered Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is suggested in PLA2G6-linked PARK 14 PD. The common pathways underlying ARPD pathology, including mitochondrial abnormalities and autophagic dysfunction, can be investigated ex vivo using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and are discussed here. PD pathophysiology is not faithfully replicated by animal models, and, therefore, nigral dopaminergic neurons generated from iPSC serve as improved human cellular models. With no cure to date and treatments aiming at symptomatic relief, these in vitro models derived through midbrain floor-plate induction provide a platform to understand the molecular and biochemical pathways underlying PD etiology in a patient-specific manner.
Keywords: Autophagic–lysosomal pathway; Calcium; Cellular reprogramming; Dopaminergic neurons; Lewy bodies; Mitophagy; PARK-14; Phospholipase A2; SOCE.
© 2021. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.