Background: A large fraction of genes contains upstream ORFs (uORFs) in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). The translation of uORFs can inhibit the translation of the main coding sequence, for example by causing premature dissociation of the two ribosomal units or ribosome stalling. However, it is currently unknown if most uORFs are inhibitory or if this activity is restricted to specific cases. Here we interrogate ribosome profiling data from three different stress experiments in yeast to gain novel insights into this question.
Results: By comparing ribosome occupancies in different conditions and experiments we obtain strong evidence that, in comparison to primary coding sequences (CDS), which undergo translational arrest during stress, the translation of uORFs is mostly unaffected by changes in the environment. As a result, the relative abundance of uORF-encoded peptides increases during stress. In general, the changes in the translational efficiency of regions containing uORFs do not seem to affect downstream translation. The exception are uORFs found in a subset of genes that are significantly up-regulated at the level of translation during stress; these uORFs tend to be translated at lower levels in stress conditions than in optimal growth conditions, facilitating the translation of the CDS during stress. We find new examples of uORF-mediated regulation of translation, including the Gcn4 functional homologue fil1 and ubi4 genes in S. pombe.
Conclusion: We find evidence that the relative amount of uORF-encoded peptides increases during stress. The increased translation of uORFs is however uncoupled from the general CDS translational repression observed during stress. In a subset of genes that encode proteins that need to be rapidly synthesized upon stress uORFs act as translational switches.