One-per-mil epinephrine solution (1:1,000,000) injected as a tumescent has been used in several hand and upper-limb surgery cases as a substitute for tourniquet. However, reviews of its effectiveness are still lacking. A comprehensive review was conducted based on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Semantic Scholar database search of relevant studies using the keyword "one-per-mil." Studies not using the exact one-per-mil tumescent solution formula were excluded. The review of clinical studies was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Epinephrine and the hydrostatic vasocompressive effect created bloodless operative fields, with 100% experimental flap survival after ischemic insult. The technique was effective in creating bloodless operative fields in 36.3% of varied hand and upper-limb surgery cases and in fully awake surgery. Current studies show that one-per-mil tumescent solution is safe and effective, enabling use of tourniquet to be avoided.
Keywords: Anesthésie locale; Blessures à la main; Epinephrine; Epinéphrine; Hand injury; Lidocaine; Lidocaïne; Local anesthesia; Vigilance; Wakefulness.
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