Urine metabolites for preoperative prediction of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 Apr 22;S0022-5223(21)00721-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.03.118. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: Acute kidney injury is a common complication after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Prediction of acute kidney injury remains a challenge. Our study aims to identify a panel of urine metabolites for preoperative warning of acute kidney injury after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

Methods: A total of 159 patients undergoing isolated on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled from July 7, 2017, to May 17, 2019. Preoperative urine samples were analyzed with the approach of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based urine metabolomics. The study end point was the episode of acute kidney injury within 48 hours postoperatively. The predictive performance was determined by the area under the curve and calibration curve. The results were validated using bootstrap resampling.

Results: The acute kidney injury (n = 55) and nonacute kidney injury (n = 104) groups showed significant different metabolic profiling. A total of 28 metabolites showed significant differences between the acute kidney injury and nonacute kidney injury groups. A metabolite panel of 5 metabolites (tyrosyl-gamma-glutamate, deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate, 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil, arginyl-arginine, and L-methionine) was discovered to have a good predicting performance (area under the curve, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.93), which is higher than the clinical factor-based model (area under the curve, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.72). Internal validation by bootstrap resampling showed an adjusted area under the curve of 0.88, and the calibration curve demonstrated good agreement between prediction and observation in the probability of postoperative acute kidney injury. Decision curve analysis revealed a superior net benefit of the metabolite model over the traditional clinical factor-based model.

Conclusions: We present 5 urine metabolites related to acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. This metabolite model may serve as a preoperative warning of acute kidney injury after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; coronary artery bypass graft; urine metabolomics.