Do psychiatric disorders affect patient reported outcomes and clinical outcomes post total hip and knee arthroplasty?

SAGE Open Med. 2021 Apr 29;9:20503121211012254. doi: 10.1177/20503121211012254. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of major psychiatric illness on patient outcomes after total joint arthroplasty.

Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of a major psychiatric disorder undergoing total joint arthroplasty were retrospectively matched one-to-one with a cohort without such a diagnosis. Major psychiatric disorder in the registry was identified by diagnosis of anxiety, mood, or a psychotic disorder. Primary outcome of interest included perioperative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Secondary outcomes included EuroQol-5D, adverse events, length of stay, 30-day readmission, and discharge destination.

Results: Total number of patients were 1828. The total hip arthroplasty (37.80 ± 17.91, p = 0.023) and the total knee arthroplasty psychiatric group (43.38 ± 18.41, p = 0.050) had significantly lower pre-operative WOMAC scores. At 3 months, the total hip arthroplasty (76.74 ± 16.94, p = 0.036) and total knee arthroplasty psychiatric group (71.09 ± 18.64, p < 0.01) again had significantly lower 3-month post-operative WOMAC score compared to the control groups. However, outcomes at 1 year were difficult to interpret, as patients with major psychiatric conditions had an extremely high loss to follow-up. Compared to the control groups, the total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty psychiatric group had an increased length of stay by 1.43 days (p < 0.01) and 0.77 days, respectively (p = 0.05). Similarly, the psychiatric groups were discharged directly home less often (total hip arthroplasty 86.9%, p = 0.024 and total knee arthroplasty 87.6%, p = 0.022) than the control groups.

Conclusion: Patients with the diagnosis of a major psychiatric illness have an increased length of stay and are more likely to require a rehabilitation facility, compared to the control groups. Arguably, of utmost importance, there is a very high rate of loss to follow-up within the psychiatric groups. As such, we recommend these patients should be treated for their diagnosis prior to total joint arthroplasty. Furthermore, importance of clinical follow-up should be emphasized carefully.

Keywords: Psychiatric; arthroplasty; depression; hip; knee; total.