Energy flow analysis of laboratory scale lithium-ion battery cell production

iScience. 2021 Apr 16;24(5):102437. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.102437. eCollection 2021 May 21.


Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been proven as an enabling technology for consumer electronics, electro mobility, and stationary storage systems, and the steadily increasing demand for LIBs raises new challenges regarding their sustainability. The rising demand for comprehensive assessments of this technology's environmental impacts requires the identification of energy and materials consumed for its production, on lab to industrial scale. There are no studies available that provide a detailed picture of lab scale cell production, and only a few studies provide detailed analysis of the actual consumption, with large deviations. Thus, the present work provides an analysis of the energy flows for the production of an LIB cell. The analyzed energy requirements of individual production steps were determined by measurements conducted on a laboratory scale lithium-ion cell production and displayed in a transparent and traceable manner. For the comparison with literature values a distinction is made between the different production scales.

Keywords: Electrochemical Energy Storage; Energy Engineering; Energy Resources; Manufacturing.