»: Acetaminophen is an effective addition to a multimodal pain regimen; however, evidence to support intravenous versus oral administration requires further evaluation.
»: While nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a valuable addition to a multimodal pain strategy, concerns regarding their effect on healing after certain procedures (i.e., rotator cuff repair) in select patients may preclude their use.
»: The use of perioperative gabapentinoids have varied results for pain control, and additional research is warranted to support their use after certain shoulder procedures.
»: Opioid-prescribing should be limited and reserved for severe postoperative pain. When prescribed, opioids should be taken at the lowest possible dose and for the shortest period.
»: Centrally acting analgesics such as tramadol have been shown to be as effective as opioids and have a lower risk of complications.
»: Nerve blocks are an excellent addition to multimodal pain management strategies. Longer-lasting formulations of perioperative single-shot injections and indwelling catheters may reduce rebound pain.
Copyright © 2021 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.