Purpose: Chronic sinusitis can result from variable types of immune-mediated process, whose pathogenesis is not fully understood. Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells 1 and 2 (TREM-1, TREM-2) are involved in myeloid cell activation enabling these cells to fine-tune the inflammatory response, which may have an impact on subsequent adaptive immunity and may be the key factor in pathogenesis. The aim of the study was to analyse soluble TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules in maxillary sinus lavage fluid and compare the defined subgroups selected from patients with chronic sinusitis with/without nasal polyps and allergy (asthma and allergic rhinitis).
Methods: The levels of soluble TREM-1 and TREM-2 were measured by Elisa test in a cohort of patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis (n=45). We compared subgroups of patients with nasal polyps (n=33) and allergy (n=25: inclusive of asthma (n=11) and allergic rhinitis (n=14)) with the control group of patients without nasal polyps (n=13), and without allergy (n=21).
Results: The study did not prove the difference between subgroups with and without nasal polyps. The levels of soluble TREM-1 did not differ significantly between patients with allergy (asthma and allergic rhinitis) and the control group without allergy (p=0.4804). The levels of soluble TREM-2 were significantly higher in patients with allergy (p=0.0028), asthma (p=0.0103) and allergic rhinitis (p=0.0137) as compared with the control group.
Conclusion: Our results suggest the role of TREM-2‑mediated activation of myeloid cells in chronic sinusitis accompanied by allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis (Tab. 6, Ref. 25).
Keywords: TREM-1 and TREM- 2 receptors; allergy; hypersensitive reaction; maxillary sinus lavage bronchial asthma..