Revertant mosaicism, or "natural gene therapy," refers to the spontaneous in vivo reversion of an inherited mutation in a somatic cell. Only approximately 50 human genetic disorders exhibit revertant mosaicism, implicating a distinctive role played by mutant proteins in somatic correction of a pathogenic germline mutation. However, the process by which mutant proteins induce somatic genetic reversion in these diseases remains unknown. Here we show that heterozygous pathogenic CARD14 mutations causing autoinflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis and pityriasis rubra pilaris, are repaired mainly via homologous recombination. Rather than altering the DNA damage response to exogenous stimuli, such as X-irradiation or etoposide treatment, mutant CARD14 increased DNA double-strand breaks under conditions of replication stress. Furthermore, mutant CARD14 suppressed new origin firings without promoting crossover events in the replication stress state. Together, these results suggest that mutant CARD14 alters the replication stress response and preferentially drives break-induced replication (BIR), which is generally suppressed in eukaryotes. Our results highlight the involvement of BIR in reversion events, thus revealing a previously undescribed role of BIR that could potentially be exploited to develop therapeutics for currently intractable genetic diseases.
Keywords: CARD14; NF-κB; break-induced replication; homologous recombination; pityriasis rubra pilaris type V; replication stress; revertant mosaicism.
Copyright © 2021 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.