Purpose of review: Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare subtype of mature T cell lymphoma. The available literature about this rare type T cell lymphoma is relatively limited. This article provides a summary and review of the available literature addressing this entity in terms of risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic, and therapeutic options.
Recent findings: EATL has two distinct subtypes. Type I EATL, now known as EATL, is closely, but not exclusively linked to celiac disease (CD), and it is primarily a disease of Northern European origin. It accounts for < 5% of peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). Risk factors for EATL include advanced age, male sex, and most importantly, genetic susceptibility in the form of HLA-DQ2 homozygosity. The pathogenesis of EATL is closely related to celiac disease as it shares common pathogenic features with refractory celiac disease. The gold standard of diagnosis is histological diagnosis. EATL carries an aggressive course and a poor prognosis. Treatment of EATL includes surgery, induction chemotherapy, and consolidation in first complete remission and autologous stem cell transplant. The role of targeted and biologic therapies in newly diagnosed EATL patients along with relapsed, refractory cases is evolving and discussed in this review. EATL is an aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma with poor overall treatment outcome using currently available therapy options. Clinical trials are considered the best approach for treatment of EATL. Early diagnosis and early referral to specialized centers would be the best way to deal with such patients. Development of new prognostic models and early surgical intervention are warranted. Prevention is where all the efforts should be spent, by counseling patients with CD regarding the importance of adherence to gluten-free diet and development of periodic surveillance programs in celiac disease patients for early detection of pre-lymphoma lesions.
Keywords: Celiac disease; EATL; Intestinal lymphoma; T cell Lymphoma.