Health Care Provider Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Delivery in Five Countries

Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Aug 1;48(8):557-564. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001389.


Background: National human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs could reduce global cervical cancer morbidity and mortality with support from health care providers. We assessed providers' perceptions of HPV vaccination in 5 countries.

Methods: We identified providers from 5 countries where national HPV vaccination programs were at various stages of implementation: Argentina, Malaysia, South Africa, South Korea, and Spain. Providers authorized to administer adolescent vaccines completed an in-depth survey, reporting perceptions of barriers and facilitators to initiating and completing HPV vaccination, and logistical challenges to HPV vaccination.

Results: Among 151 providers, common barriers to HPV vaccination initiation across all countries were parents' lack of awareness (39%), concerns about vaccine safety or efficacy (33%), and cost to patients (30%). Vaccination education campaign (70%) was the most commonly cited facilitator of HPV vaccination initiation. Common barriers to series completion included no reminder system or dosing schedule (37%), loss to follow-up or forgetting appointment (29%), and cost to patients (25%). Cited facilitators to completing the vaccine series were education campaigns (45%), affordable vaccination (32%), and reminder/recall systems (22%). Among all countries, high cost of vaccination was the most common logistical challenge to offering vaccination to adolescents (33%).

Conclusions: Incorporating provider insights into future HPV vaccination programs could accelerate vaccine delivery to increase HPV vaccination rates globally.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alphapapillomavirus*
  • Argentina
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • Malaysia
  • Papillomavirus Infections* / prevention & control
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines*
  • Perception
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Vaccination


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines