Improving 1-year mortality prediction in ACS patients using machine learning

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2021 Oct 27;10(8):855-865. doi: 10.1093/ehjacc/zuab030.


Background: The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score is an established clinical risk stratification tool for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We developed and internally validated a model for 1-year all-cause mortality prediction in ACS patients.

Methods: Between 2009 and 2012, 2'168 ACS patients were enrolled into the Swiss SPUM-ACS Cohort. Biomarkers were determined in 1'892 patients and follow-up was achieved in 95.8% of patients. 1-year all-cause mortality was 4.3% (n = 80). In our analysis we consider all linear models using combinations of 8 out of 56 variables to predict 1-year all-cause mortality and to derive a variable ranking.

Results: 1.3% of 1'420'494'075 models outperformed the GRACE 2.0 Score. The SPUM-ACS Score includes age, plasma glucose, NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), Killip class, history of peripheral artery disease (PAD), malignancy, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. For predicting 1-year mortality after ACS, the SPUM-ACS Score outperformed the GRACE 2.0 Score which achieves a 5-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84). Ranking individual features according to their importance across all multivariate models revealed age, trimethylamine N-oxide, creatinine, history of PAD or malignancy, LVEF, and haemoglobin as the most relevant variables for predicting 1-year mortality.

Conclusions: The variable ranking and the selection for the SPUM-ACS Score highlight the relevance of age, markers of heart failure, and comorbidities for prediction of all-cause death. Before application, this score needs to be externally validated and refined in larger cohorts.

Clinical trial registration: NCT01000701.

Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndromes; GRACE 2.0 Score; Machine Learning; NT-proBNP; age.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Machine Learning
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Function, Left

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