Downregulation of CD151 restricts VCAM-1 mediated leukocyte infiltration to reduce neurobiological injuries after experimental stroke

J Neuroinflammation. 2021 May 22;18(1):118. doi: 10.1186/s12974-021-02171-6.

Abstract

Background: Translational failures in anti-adhesion molecule therapies after stroke reveal the necessity of developing new strategies that not only interrupt leukocyte recruitment but also consider the inhibition of endothelial cell inflammation, verification of therapeutic time window, and normal function maintenance of circulating leukocytes. Our study focused on the potential therapeutic value of CD151 downregulation in improving current anti-adhesion molecule therapies.

Methods: Lentivirus intracerebroventricular administration was conducted to inhibit the CD151 expression and observe its functional influence on neurological injuries and outcomes. Then, immunohistochemistry and myeloperoxidase activity assessment were performed to explore the effects of CD151 expression on neutrophil and monocyte recruitment after rat cerebral ischemia. Primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms between CD151 and VCAM-1.

Results: The CD151 downregulation remarkably reduced neurological injuries and improved neurological outcomes, which were accompanied with reduced neutrophil and monocyte infiltration after the CD151 downregulation. The VCAM-1 expression was remarkably decreased among the adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell responsible for neutrophil and monocyte infiltration. The activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways was restricted after the CD151 downregulation. p38 MAPK and NF-κB inhibitors decreased the VCAM-1 expression, and p38 acted as an upstream regulator of NF-κB. However, CD151 downregulation did not directly influence the neutrophil and monocyte activation.

Conclusions: Overall, CD151 regulated the expression of adhesion molecules. It also played a critical role in suppressing VCAM-1-mediated neutrophil and monocyte infiltration via the p38/NF-κB pathway. This study possibly provided a new basis for improving current anti-adhesion molecule therapies.

Keywords: CD151; Endothelial cell; Monocyte; Neutrophil; Stroke; VCAM-1.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Migration Inhibition
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Down-Regulation*
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / immunology*
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology*
  • Leukocytes* / immunology
  • Leukocytes* / metabolism
  • Leukocytes* / pathology
  • Male
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Neuroprotection / immunology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Tetraspanin 24 / metabolism*
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism*
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

Substances

  • Cd151 protein, rat
  • NF-kappa B
  • Tetraspanin 24
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases