Helicobacter pylori Infection

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;50(2):261-282. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.001.


Helicobacter pylori infection remains one of the most prevalent infections worldwide, causing significant morbidity and mortality from gastric malignancies and peptic ulcers. This article provides a summary of the microbiology and pathogenesis of this bacterium, emphasizing the complex and protean effects of H pylori on gastric epithelial cells, including stem and progenitor populations, and evasion of host immune defenses. Increasing antibiotic resistance has made management more challenging. This article discusses the appropriate diagnostic modality for different clinical scenarios, and the evolving treatment of H pylori infections, including the use of antibiotic susceptibility testing to aid regimen selection.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Diagnosis; Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Microbial pathogenesis; Peptic ulcer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Helicobacter Infections* / diagnosis
  • Helicobacter Infections* / drug therapy
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Humans
  • Peptic Ulcer*
  • Stomach Neoplasms*