Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Tuberculosis

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;50(2):341-360. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.004.


Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant problem worldwide, and may involve the luminal GI tract from oral cavity to perianal area in addition to associated viscera and peritoneum. Although GI TB more commonly affects immunocompromised hosts, it can also occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis is difficult because it usually mimics a malignancy or inflammatory bowel disease. A high index of clinical suspicion and appropriate use of combined investigative methods help in early diagnosis, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Anti-TB therapy is the same as for pulmonary disease, and invasive and specialized interventions are reserved for selected complications.

Keywords: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis; Gastrointestinal Mycobacterium avium complex infection; Gastrointestinal tuberculosis; Granulomatous hepatitis; Inflammatory bowel disease; Peritoneal tuberculosis; Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abdomen
  • Humans
  • Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal* / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal* / drug therapy