Clinical and dosimetric risk factors for vertebral compression fracture after single-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for spine metastases

J Bone Oncol. 2021 May 1;28:100368. doi: 10.1016/j.jbo.2021.100368. eCollection 2021 Jun.


Objectives: This analysis was performed to evaluate the incidence of vertebral compression fracture (VCF) and determine the contributing factors for VCF in patients undergoing single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for spinal bone metastases (SBM).

Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted for patients undergoing SBRT for SBM at our institution between January 2010 and December 2018. Patients who had undergone neither pre-SBRT surgical excision nor post-SBRT prophylactic fixation were included. The effects of clinical and dosimetric parameters were analyzed with respect to VCF risk. The following dosimietric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) were calculated: mean/minimum/maximum dose, radiation dose to 10-90% volume, and irradiated volume receiving more than 10-25 Gy (PTV_V10 - 25 Gy).

Results: Among 163 patients (179 vertebrae), 21 (12.8%) experienced VCF. The 1-year and 2-year VCF rates were 12.1% and 13.2%, respectively. Among dosimetric parameters, PTV_V15 Gy was the most significant for VCF prediction. In a univariate analysis, breast or prostate primary, no vertebral body collapse, and PTV_V15 Gy ≤42 cm3 were significantly associated with a lower incidence rate of VCF. In a multivariate analysis, PTV_V15 Gy was the only significant factor for VCF risk. The 1-year VCF rate was 3.8% in patients with PTV_V15 Gy ≤42 cm3, while it was 22.1% in those with PTV_V15 Gy > 42 cm3 (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: SBRT-related VCF was found in 12% of patients in our institution. The PTV_V15 Gy is a significant factor for VCF prediction.

Keywords: Fractures, compression; Neoplasm metastasis; Radiosurgery; Risk factors; Spinal neoplasms.