Canagliflozin and Kidney-Related Adverse Events in Type 2 Diabetes and CKD: Findings From the Randomized CREDENCE Trial

Am J Kidney Dis. 2022 Feb;79(2):244-256.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.05.005. Epub 2021 May 23.


Rationale & objective: Canagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and related outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) trial. This analysis of CREDENCE trial data examines the effect of canagliflozin on the incidence of kidney-related adverse events (AEs).

Study design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter international trial.

Setting & participants: 4,401 trial participants with T2DM, CKD, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300-5,000 mg/g.

Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin 100 mg/d or placebo.

Outcomes: Rates of kidney-related AEs were analyzed using an on-treatment approach, overall and by screening estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) strata (30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 mL/min/1.73 m2).

Results: Canagliflozin was associated with a reduction in the overall incidence rate of kidney-related AEs (60.2 vs 84.0 per 1,000 patient-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.71 [95% CI, 0.61-0.82]; P < 0.001), with consistent results for serious kidney-related AEs (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.51-1.00]; P = 0.05) and acute kidney injury (AKI; HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.64-1.13]; P = 0.3). The rates of kidney-related AEs were lower with canagliflozin relative to placebo across the 3 eGFR strata (HRs of 0.73, 0.60, and 0.81 for eGFR 30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively; P = 0.3 for interaction), with similar results for AKI (P = 0.9 for interaction). Full recovery of kidney function within 30 days after an AKI event occurred more frequently with canagliflozin versus placebo (53.1% vs 35.4%; odds ratio, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.0-4.7]; P = 0.04).

Limitations: Kidney-related AEs including AKI were investigator-reported and collected without central adjudication. Biomarkers of AKI and structural tubular damage were not measured, and creatinine data after an AKI event were not available for all participants.

Conclusions: Compared with placebo, canagliflozin was associated with a reduced incidence of serious and nonserious kidney-related AEs in patients with T2DM and CKD. These results highlight the safety of canagliflozin with regard to adverse kidney-related AEs.

Funding: The CREDENCE trial and this analysis were funded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC, and were conducted as a collaboration between the funder, an academic steering committee, and an academic research organization, George Clinical.

Trial registration: The CREDENCE trial was registered at with identifier number NCT02065791.

Keywords: Canagliflozin; SGLT2 inhibitor; acute kidney injury (AKI); drug safety; kidney disease progression; kidney function; renal safety; renal-related adverse events; sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2); type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Canagliflozin / adverse effects
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors* / adverse effects


  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Canagliflozin

Associated data