This study was designed to examine the combined effect of bamboo-biochar (BC) and water-washed lignite (LGT) at copper mine tailings (CuMT) sites on the concentration of Cu and other metals in pore water (PW), their bioavailability, and change in geochemical speciation. Rapeseed (first cropping-season) and wheat (second cropping-season) were grown for 40-days each and the influence of applied-amendments on both cropping seasons was observed and compared. A significant increase in pH, water holding capacity (WHC), and soil organic carbon (SOC) was observed after the applied amendments in second cropping-seasons. The BC-LGT significantly reduced the concentration of Cu in PW after second cropping seasons; however, the concentration of Pb and Zn were increased with the individual application of biochar and LGT, respectively. BC-LGT and BC-2% significantly reduced the bioavailability of Cu and other HMs in both cropping seasons. The treated-CuMT was subjected to spectroscopic investigation through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Cu sorption mainly involved the coordination with hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups, as well as the co-precipitation or complexation on mineral surfaces, which vary with the applied amendment and bulk amount of Mg, Mn, and Fe released during sorption-process. The co-application of BC-LGT exerted significant effectiveness in immobilizing Cu and other HMs in CuMT. The outcomes of the study indicated that co-application of BC-LGT is an efficacious combination of organic and inorganic materials for Cu adsorption which may provide some new information for the sustainable remediation of copper mine tailing.
Keywords: Biochar; Heavy metals; Lignite; Spectroscopic investigation.
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