Pentagalloyl Glucose-Laden Poly(lactide- co-glycolide) Nanoparticles for the Biomechanical Extracellular Matrix Stabilization of an In Vitro Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Model

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2021 Jun 9;13(22):25771-25782. doi: 10.1021/acsami.1c05344. Epub 2021 May 24.


The suppression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth by nonsurgical therapy is currently not an option, and AAA is considered an irreversible destructive disease. The formation and development of AAA is associated with the progressive deterioration of the aortic wall. Infiltrated macrophages and resident vascular smooth muscle cells oversecrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which cause the loss of crucial aortic extracellular matrix (ECM) components, thus weakening the aortic wall. Stabilization of the aortic ECM could enable the development of novel therapeutic options for preventing and reducing AAA progression. In the present work, we studied the biochemical and biomechanical interactions of pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) on mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. PGG is a naturally occurring ECM-stabilizing polyphenolic compound that has been studied in various applications, including vascular health, with promising results. With its known limitations of systemic administration, we also studied the administration of PGG when encapsulated within poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). Treatment with collagenase and elastase enzymes was used to mimic a pathway of degenerative effects seen in the pathogenesis of human AAA. PGG and PLGA(PGG) NPs were added to enzyme-treated cells in either a suppressive or preventative scenario. Biomolecular interactions were analyzed through cell viability, cell adhesion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion. Biomechanical properties were studied through atomic force microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Our results suggest that PGG or PLGA(PGG) NPs caused minor to no cytotoxic effects on the C2C12 cells. Both PGG and PLGA(PGG) NPs showed reduction in ROS and MMP-2 secretion if administered after enzymatic ECM degradation. A quantitative comparison of Young's moduli showed a significant recovery in the elastic properties of the cells treated with PGG or PLGA(PGG) NPs after enzymatic ECM degradation. This work provides preliminary support for the use of a pharmacological therapy for AAA treatment.

Keywords: abdominal aortic aneurysm; cell mechanics; extracellular matrix; pentagalloyl glucose; poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / drug therapy*
  • Cell Adhesion*
  • Extracellular Matrix / chemistry*
  • Extracellular Matrix / drug effects
  • Hydrolyzable Tannins / administration & dosage*
  • Hydrolyzable Tannins / chemistry
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Myoblasts / cytology
  • Myoblasts / drug effects*
  • Nanoparticles / administration & dosage*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • Polyesters / chemistry*


  • Hydrolyzable Tannins
  • Polyesters
  • pentagalloylglucose
  • poly(lactide)
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases