Nutrition and physical activity interventions for the general population with and without cardiometabolic risk: a scoping review

Public Health Nutr. 2021 Oct;24(14):4718-4736. doi: 10.1017/S1368980021002184. Epub 2021 May 25.


Objective: The objective of this scoping review was to examine the research question: In the adults with or without cardiometabolic risk, what is the availability of literature examining interventions to improve or maintain nutrition and physical activity-related outcomes? Sub-topics included: (1) behaviour counseling or coaching from a dietitian/nutritionist or exercise practitioner, (2) mobile applications to improve nutrition and physical activity and (3) nutritional ergogenic aids.

Design: The current study is a scoping review. A literature search of the Medline Complete, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and other databases was conducted to identify articles published in the English language from January 2005 until May 2020. Data were synthesised using bubble charts and heat maps.

Setting: Out-patient, community and workplace.

Participants: Adults with or without cardiometabolic risk factors living in economically developed countries.

Results: Searches resulted in 19 474 unique articles and 170 articles were included in this scoping review, including one guideline, thirty systematic reviews (SR), 134 randomised controlled trials and five non-randomised trials. Mobile applications (n 37) as well as ergogenic aids (n 87) have been addressed in several recent studies, including SR. While primary research has examined the effect of individual-level nutrition and physical activity counseling or coaching from a dietitian/nutritionist and/or exercise practitioner (n 48), interventions provided by these practitioners have not been recently synthesised in SR.

Conclusion: SR of behaviour counseling or coaching provided by a dietitian/nutritionist and/or exercise practitioner are needed and can inform practice for practitioners working with individuals who are healthy or have cardiometabolic risk.

Keywords: Counseling; Diet; Dietitian; Exercise; Mobile applications; Nutritionist; Scoping review.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Exercise
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Status
  • Nutritionists*
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic