Plants grown in natural soil are colonized by phylogenetically structured communities of microbes known as the microbiota. Individual microbes can activate microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI), which limits pathogen proliferation but curtails plant growth, a phenomenon known as the growth-defence trade-off. Here, we report that, in monoassociations, 41% (62 out of 151) of taxonomically diverse root bacterial commensals suppress Arabidopsis thaliana root growth inhibition (RGI) triggered by immune-stimulating MAMPs or damage-associated molecular patterns. Amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes reveals that immune activation alters the profile of synthetic communities (SynComs) comprising RGI-non-suppressive strains, whereas the presence of RGI-suppressive strains attenuates this effect. Root colonization by SynComs with different complexities and RGI-suppressive activities alters the expression of 174 core host genes, with functions related to root development and nutrient transport. Furthermore, RGI-suppressive SynComs specifically downregulate a subset of immune-related genes. Precolonization of plants with RGI-suppressive SynComs, or mutation of one commensal-downregulated transcription factor, MYB15, renders the plants more susceptible to opportunistic Pseudomonas pathogens. Our results suggest that RGI-non-suppressive and RGI-suppressive root commensals modulate host susceptibility to pathogens by either eliciting or dampening MTI responses, respectively. This interplay buffers the plant immune system against pathogen perturbation and defence-associated growth inhibition, ultimately leading to commensal-host homeostasis.