The association between soy-based food and soy isoflavone intake and the risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

J Sci Food Agric. 2021 Oct;101(13):5314-5324. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.11334. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Abstract

Soy contains many bioactive phytochemicals, such as isoflavones, which have the effect of preventing many cancers. Some studies have shown the beneficial effect of soy-based food and isoflavone intake on gastric cancer (GC), while others claimed no effect. Therefore, whether the beneficial effect of soy-based food is related to its fermentation or whether its protective effect comes from isoflavones still remains inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between total soybean, fermented soybean, non-fermented soybean and isoflavone intake, and the risk of GC. Ten cohort studies and 21 case-control studies involving 916 354 participants were included. The association between soy-based food and isoflavone intake and the risk of GC was calculated with the pooled relative risks (RRs) for the highest versus lowest intake categories. The results showed that isoflavone intake might be a protective factor to GC, but the result was not statistically significant (RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.79-1.07). However, total soybean intake could significantly decrease the risk of GC by 36% (RR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.51-0.80), which might be credited to non-fermented soybean products (RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.71-0.87). In contrast, high intake of fermented soybean products could increase the risk of GC (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02-1.38). High intake of total soybean and non-fermented soybean products could reduce the risk of GC, and high intake of fermented soybean products could increase the risk, which indicated that the beneficial effect of soy-based food might be related to its non-fermentation. However, high intake of isoflavones may not be associated with the incidence of GC. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: fermented; gastric cancer; isoflavones; meta-analysis; soy.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Glycine max / chemistry
  • Glycine max / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Isoflavones / analysis
  • Isoflavones / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Protective Agents / analysis
  • Protective Agents / metabolism*
  • Risk Factors
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Soy Foods / analysis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Isoflavones
  • Protective Agents